Please find below a list of the presentations from Strand A : ASSESSING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE - (Strand Leader: Judith Fabian)
A Study on Intercultural Learning Through Short-term Study Abroad Programs
Marissa Lombardi -Lorenzo de' Medici International Institute
This quantitative study measured the extent to which short-term study abroad programs increase levels of intercultural competence and openness to diversity among undergraduate students, and found that all participants’ levels of intercultural competence and openness to diversity increased after participating in these programs. As part of their mission, strategic plan, and internationalization initiatives, many higher education institutions claim to graduate students who are “interculturally competent” and/or “open to diversity”, yet have no concrete way of demonstrating that these initiatives are being met. Through quantitative measurement, this study shows that short-term study abroad programs are one effective approach to reaching these institutional objectives. Moreover, the control group data show us that these research findings can be applied to a general undergraduate student population, not just to those who self-selected to participate in short-term study abroad. Finally, this study found that students who have been exposed to diversity and cultural differences prior to their sojourns abroad generally increase levels of intercultural competence in more areas than those students who have had little to no previous intercultural exposure. Therefore, in order for students to get the most out of their short-term study abroad experiences, the results of this study suggest institutions should require students to enroll in interculturally-focused courses and/or other cross-cultural experiences on campus prior to studying abroad.
The notion of intercultural sensitivity and its measurement
In this session it is argued that intercultural sensitivity is a critical part of being globally-minded and therefore needs to be understood, measured and developed in international schools. A case is made for the validity of culture as a concept; a prerequisite for discussion of intercultural awareness, intercultural sensitivity and intercultural competence. Intercultural sensitivity is then advanced as central to the notion of global-mindedness. In the context of international schools, perspectives on global-mindedness are considered and it is proposed that, irrespective of which view is taken, intercultural sensitivity is a core principle. It is argued that, if a school is to help students become globally-minded, an interculturally sensitive staff must drive the process. Various models for assessing intercultural sensitivity are reviewed and one, the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI), is considered in more detail. Its use in schools, as a starting point in the development of intercultural sensitivity among staff, is examined. Other means by which intercultural sensitivity can be heightened are also evaluated. The presentation concludes with a brief look at culture shock and a case to limit its role in discussion of intercultural sensitivity.
Cultural Proficiency Model for International Schools
This presentation facilitates a deeper understanding of the varied cultural backgrounds in a school and encourages sensitivity and inclusion within the international school community in terms of curriculum planning and staffing presence. Implementation of the Cultural Proficiency Model (CPM) seeks first to explore and recognize our cultural backgrounds and values. Its objectives are to: 1) Determine what defines our cultural identity; 2) Articulate and share our cultural viewpoints with others in the CPM participant group; 3) List and analyze the cultural backgrounds of the student population; 4) Identify the degree to which the cultural/ethnic backgrounds of each student are currently valued, reflected and discussed; 5) Manifest an appreciation and more systematic inclusion of cultural facets and students’ cultural backgrounds into the current curriculum. We will then reflect higher levels of cultural proficiency in terms of curriculum choices, staffing and student awareness within the international school setting
International mindedness and Intercultural awareness in Pakistani College and University Teachers
Zehra Habib - PhD candidate, George Mason University
This study is an ongoing qualitative research project exploring international mindedness and intercultural awareness in university level education in Pakistan. For this purpose, in the first phase of the project open-ended questionnaires were sent electronically to teachers and students in Pakistani colleges and universities in October 2009. Twenty two teachers and twenty one students participated in the project. Findings from the study suggest that teachers and students are not very internationally minded in the Pakistani higher education setting. Some dominant themes which emerged from the responses of participants pertain to the need for change in policy, practice, and curriculum. The findings also accentuate the necessity to provide teachers with tools for building international mindedness in learners. As an ongoing research project, a face to face focus group interview was conducted (in September 2012) with ten teachers who had participated in the earlier study. This focus group interview explored changes in pedagogical practices, policy, curriculum, and teacher education in the last two years in Pakistan which may have/have not contributed towards some change in the approach to international mindedness and multicultural education. Additionally, the interview explored participants’ perspectives regarding tools needed by teachers for building international mindedness and intercultural awareness in learners so that students are prepared to become global citizens in this increasingly globalized milieu. The findings from the focus group interview and major themes emerging will be included and presented in the study. The project will conclude with implications for teachers and teacher education and propose further approaches for professional development of educators from the lens of international mindedness, intercultural awareness and global citizenship – not only for teachers in Pakistan, but also from the wide-ranging viewpoint of teachers in other regions of the globe.
A new language for Culture, Values and Identity
With our new understandings of the nature and mechanism of these three terms derived from neurology and cognitive and cultural psychology, we need fresh metaphors to talk about them. It is helpful to proffer new words reflecting the underlying processes, to launch a discourse that is freed from inappropriate connotations. First the current usages will be reviewed, noting the understandings which are implicit in the way we apply them. Then the new understandings will be summarised, drawing on the work of Damasio, Hauser and Haidt on the nature of moral judgment. Finally new terms will be offered which relate more closely to the mechanisms by which these three important processes work. It is hoped that this will equip us for more productive reflections on these topics, and on how we can promote learning and development in situations of cultural diversity.
Towards a scheme for evaluating international–mindedness in a school context
Richard Harwood - International Consultant and CEM, Durham University
The social and personal development of our students is accepted across a wide range of national and international schools as an integral dimension in educational provision. Whatever the fluctuating developments of economic and social globalisation, and the extensive interactions involved in our multicultural societies, the increasing emphasis placed on citizenship and the development of international awareness and sensitivity in our students is understandable. The development of a sense of internationalism is a key concept in the approach of a range of established curricular programmes and the extent to which aspects of international-mindedness are fostered through school activities and ethos is an increasingly key focus of accreditation protocols. The current project described here is aimed at providing schools with the means to evaluate the development of international-mindedness in terms of curriculum provision and school ethos, and within the mindset of students as they grow up through the school.
There have been extensive discussions of terminology in this area and care is needed to avoid simply projecting a particular set of cultural ideas. However, we have suggested a working definition and, based on this definition, we have devised a broad conceptual framework for the purposes of monitoring and evaluation. The proposed framework covers five strands that are then considered at different levels, extending out from the individual student to their interactions in school and the wider world. The importance of developing both an international awareness and attitude has been explored, the latter implying an internalization of appropriate values by the students involved. Such concerns suggested the need to include some form of self-reflective journal or portfolio in the components of the assessment. Consequently the proposed student and school evaluation surveys will consist of both quantitative and qualitative elements.
A case study of implementing international-mindedness in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in Hong Kong Second Language Chinese classrooms
Kwok Ling Lau - The University of Hong Kong
There are very few studies researching how international-mindedness is implemented in the IB Diploma Chinese as second language programme. The case study described here investigates how teachers of Chinese in Hong Kong promote international-mindedness in this context. This study also examines how IB Diploma students of Chinese as a second language develop international-mindedness in learning in three international schools in Hong Kong. In the theoretical framework, I refer to the definition of international-mindedness from the literature of Haywood (2007), Skelton (2005, 2007), McKenzie (1998) and Sylvester (2005). The research methodology includes in-depth interviews with semi-structured questions, classroom observation, classroom discourse analysis (Christie, 2008) and text analysis of students’ work using Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1994)，Appraisal Theory (Martin and White, 2005) and Bernstein’s topology of pedagogies of instruction. The findings show that the teachers in this study demonstrated international-mindedness in their teaching. Teachers and students are realizing international-mindedness by worldmindedness, open mindedness, the promotion of a sense of global interdependence, of a sense of individual and cultural self-esteem, the promotion of a commitment to world peace and development, a passion for learning as process and product, respect for, and tolerance of other cultures and cultural diversity, intercultural understanding, global citizenship, human rights, responsibilities, empathy, passion, courage, ethics, critical thinking and problem solving skills, collaboration, creativity and knowledge.